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3.4. Performance Metric Descriptions

For each defined performance metric, there exists metadata describing it.
  • A performance metric description (pmDesc structure) that describes the format and semantics of the performance metric.
  • Help text associated with the metric and any associated instance domain.
  • Performance metric labels (name:value pairs in pmLabelSet structures) associated with the metric and any associated instances.
The pmDesc structure, in Example 3.2, “ pmDesc Structure”, provides all of the information required to interpret and manipulate a performance metric through the PMAPI. It has the following declaration:

Example 3.2.  pmDesc Structure

/* Performance Metric Descriptor */
typedef struct {
    pmID    pmid;   /* unique identifier */
    int     type;   /* base data type (see below) */
    pmInDom indom;  /* instance domain */
    int     sem;    /* semantics of value (see below) */
    pmUnits units;  /* dimension and units (see below) */
} pmDesc;
The type field in the pmDesc structure describes various encodings of a metric's value. Its value will be one of the following constants:
/* pmDesc.type - data type of metric values */
#define PM_TYPE_NOSUPPORT -1   /* not in this version */
#define PM_TYPE_32        0    /* 32-bit signed integer */
#define PM_TYPE_U32       1    /* 32-bit unsigned integer */
#define PM_TYPE_64        2    /* 64-bit signed integer */
#define PM_TYPE_U64       3    /* 64-bit unsigned integer */
#define PM_TYPE_FLOAT     4    /* 32-bit floating point */
#define PM_TYPE_DOUBLE    5    /* 64-bit floating point */
#define PM_TYPE_STRING    6    /* array of char */
#define PM_TYPE_AGGREGATE 7    /* arbitrary binary data */
#define PM_TYPE_AGGREGATE_STATIC 8 /* static pointer to aggregate */
#define PM_TYPE_EVENT     9    /* packed pmEventArray */
#define PM_TYPE_UNKNOWN   255  /* used in pmValueBlock not pmDesc */
By convention PM_TYPE_STRING is interpreted as a classic C-style null byte terminated string.
Event records are encoded as a packed array of strongly-typed, well-defined records within a pmResult structure, using a container metric with a value of type PM_TYPE_EVENT.
If the value of a performance metric is of type PM_TYPE_STRING, PM_TYPE_AGGREGATE, PM_TYPE_AGGREGATE_STATIC, or PM_TYPE_EVENT, the interpretation of that value is unknown to many PCP components. In the case of the aggregate types, the application using the value and the Performance Metrics Domain Agent (PMDA) providing the value must have some common understanding about how the value is structured and interpreted. Strings can be manipulated using the standard C libraries. Event records contain timestamps, event flags and event parameters, and the PMAPI provides support for unpacking an event record - see the pmUnpackEventRecords(3) man page for details. Further discussion on event metrics and event records can be found in Section 3.6, “Performance Event Metrics”.
PM_TYPE_NOSUPPORT indicates that the PCP collection framework knows about the metric, but the corresponding service or application is either not configured or is at a revision level that does not provide support for this performance metric.
The semantics of the performance metric is described by the sem field of a pmDesc structure and uses the following constants:
/* pmDesc.sem - semantics of metric values */
#define PM_SEM_COUNTER  1  /* cumulative count, monotonic increasing */
#define PM_SEM_INSTANT  3  /* instantaneous value continuous domain */
#define PM_SEM_DISCRETE 4  /* instantaneous value discrete domain */
Each value for a performance metric is assumed to be drawn from a set of values that can be described in terms of their dimensionality and scale by a compact encoding, as follows:
  • The dimensionality is defined by a power, or index, in each of three orthogonal dimensions: Space, Time, and Count (dimensionless). For example, I/O throughput is Space1.Time-1, while the running total of system calls is Count1, memory allocation is Space1, and average service time per event is Time1.Count-1.
  • In each dimension, a number of common scale values are defined that may be used to better encode ranges that might otherwise exhaust the precision of a 32-bit value. For example, a metric with dimension Space1.Time-1 may have values encoded using the scale megabytes per second.
This information is encoded in the pmUnits data structure, shown in Example 3.3, “ pmUnits and pmDesc Structures”. It is embedded in the pmDesc structure :
The structures are as follows:

Example 3.3.  pmUnits and pmDesc Structures

/*
 * Encoding for the units (dimensions and
 * scale) for Performance Metric Values
 *
 * For example, a pmUnits struct of
 * { 1, -1, 0, PM_SPACE_MBYTE, PM_TIME_SEC, 0 }
 * represents Mbytes/sec, while 
 * { 0, 1, -1, 0, PM_TIME_HOUR, 6 }
 * represents hours/million-events
 */
typedef struct {
    int pad:8;
    int scaleCount:4; /* one of PM_COUNT_* below */
    int scaleTime:4;  /* one of PM_TIME_* below */
    int scaleSpace:4; /* one of PM_SPACE_* below */    
    int dimCount:4;   /* event dimension */
    int dimTime:4;    /* time dimension */
    int dimSpace:4;   /* space dimension
} pmUnits;   /* dimensional units and scale of value */
/* pmUnits.scaleSpace */
#define PM_SPACE_BYTE 0  /* bytes */
#define PM_SPACE_KBYTE 1 /* kibibytes (1024) */
#define PM_SPACE_MBYTE 2 /* mebibytes (1024^2) */
#define PM_SPACE_GBYTE 3 /* gibibytes (1024^3) */
#define PM_SPACE_TBYTE 4 /* tebibytes (1024^4) */
#define PM_SPACE_PBYTE 5 /* pebibytes (1024^5) */
#define PM_SPACE_EBYTE 6 /* exbibytes (1024^6) */
#define PM_SPACE_ZBYTE 7 /* zebibytes (1024^7) */
#define PM_SPACE_YBYTE 8 /* yobibytes (1024^8) */
/* pmUnits.scaleTime */
#define PM_TIME_NSEC 0   /* nanoseconds */
#define PM_TIME_USEC 1   /* microseconds */
#define PM_TIME_MSEC 2   /* milliseconds */
#define PM_TIME_SEC 3    /* seconds */
#define PM_TIME_MIN 4    /* minutes */
#define PM_TIME_HOUR 5   /* hours */
/*
 * pmUnits.scaleCount (e.g. count events, syscalls,
 * interrupts, etc.) -- these are simply powers of 10,
 * and not enumerated here.
 * e.g. 6 for 10^6, or -3 for 10^-3
 */
#define PM_COUNT_ONE 0 /* 1 */
Metric and instance domain help text are simple ASCII strings. As a result, there are no special data structures associated with them. There are two forms of help text available for each metric and instance domain, however - one-line and long form.

Example 3.4. Help Text Flags

#define PM_TEXT_ONELINE 1
#define PM_TEXT_HELP    2
Labels are stored and communicated within PCP using JSONB formatted strings in the json field of a pmLabelSet structure. This format is a restricted form of JSON suitable for indexing and other operations. In JSONB form, insignificant whitespace is discarded, and order of label names is not preserved. Within the PMCS, however, a lexicographically sorted key space is always maintained. Duplicate label names are not permitted. The label with highest precedence in the label hierarchy (context level labels, domain level labels, and so on) is the only one presented.

Example 3.5. pmLabel and pmLabelSet Structures

typedef struct {
    uint     name : 16;      /* label name offset in JSONB string */
    uint     namelen : 8;    /* length of name excluding the null */
    uint     flags : 8;      /* information about this label */
    uint     value : 16;     /* offset of the label value */
    uint     valuelen : 16;  /* length of value in bytes */
} pmLabel;

/* flags identifying label hierarchy classes. */
#define PM_LABEL_CONTEXT        (1<<0)
#define PM_LABEL_DOMAIN         (1<<1)
#define PM_LABEL_INDOM          (1<<2)
#define PM_LABEL_CLUSTER        (1<<3)
#define PM_LABEL_ITEM           (1<<4)
#define PM_LABEL_INSTANCES      (1<<5)
/* flag identifying extrinsic labels. */
#define PM_LABEL_OPTIONAL       (1<<7)

typedef struct { 
    uint     inst;          /* PM_IN_NULL or the instance ID */ 
    int      nlabels;       /* count of labels or error code */
    char     *json;         /* JSONB formatted labels string */
    uint     jsonlen : 16;  /* JSON string length byte count */
    uint     padding : 16;  /* zero, reserved for future use */
    pmLabel  *labels;       /* indexing into the JSON string */
} pmLabelSet;
The pmLabel labels array provides name and value indexes and lengths in the json string.
The flags field is a bitfield identifying the hierarchy level and whether this name:value pair is intrinsic (optional) or extrinsic (part of the mandatory, identifying metadata for the metric or instance). All other fields are offsets and lengths in the JSONB string from an associated pmLabelSet structure.